Campbell and Reese: Errata
- Activity 1A:
The Levels of Life Game has different levels from the textbook. For example,
does not specifically include atoms, but does include organelles and the biosphere in the 10 levels.
- Figure 1.4:
ecosystems should include decomposers in addition to producers and consumers.
- Chap 1 Scientific Inquiry "male (Bombyx mori).. fly toward their source":
silkworm moths cannot fly.
- Figure 2.13:
- Figure 6.7:
Surface-to-volume ratio should be "surface area / volume", not "surface area + volume".
- Activity 7D:
(Osmosis and Water Balance in Cells): there should not be lables for both "hypertonic" outside the cell and "hypotonic" inside
the cell, there shouldjust be a label outside the cell.
- Figure 10.18:
The Pi should be released from ADP, not from NADPH.
- Concept 11.1: "External signals are converted into responses within the cell".
This is misleading, cell junctions provide direct communication, without external signaling.
- Chap 11: mentions kinase many times, but never defines it.
- Figure 15.9:
"Ova" should be "Ovum".
- Figure 18.4:
"Capsomere of capsid" -> "Capsid made of capsomeres". The label "Capsid" in (c) should point further inside the envelope to a capsid.
- Activity 19B:
the "Activation of protein" control point is not discussed in the text.
- Figure 21.10:
"These precursor cells resemble fibroblasts (see the photo in Figure 12.15)".
There is no photo of fibroblasts in Figure 12.15,
perhaps this should be Figure 12.17,
or Figure 6.1?
- Figure 22.9:
are these different lady beetle individuals the same species to qualify as "variations in a population"?
- Figure 22.14:
The brown bones are not just phalanges, but also metacarpals.
- Chap 22 p. 450: biogeography was not a major theory until MacArthur and Wilson in 1967, and was not well developed by Darwin.
- Chap 23 p. 455: "The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time is called the population’s gene pool": ->
"aggregate of alleles".
- Figure 25.4:
"An organism?s mineral–containing hard parts, such as bones, shells, or teeth, are most likely to be preserved as fossils."
The minerals are usually not preserved, but replaced by permineralization.
- Chap 25 p. 498: "Among vertebrates, the backbone is considered a shared primitive character" -> "shared derived character".
- Activity 25A
should be in chapter 26.
- Activity 26:
should be in chapter 25.
- Activity 26A
and Activity 26B
are the same?
- Chap 26: "The boundaries between the eras correspond to times of mass extinctions": this implies a correspondence between eras and
mass extinctions, but nobody talks about a "Paleozoic extinction", or a "Mesozoic extinction".
- Chap 26: "The Permian mass extinction... claimed about 96% of marine animal species" -> remove "animal".
Also "occurred at the time of enormous volcanic eruptions": there are many other theories about the cause of the P-T extinction, such as
the formation of Pangea.
- Activity 27A:
The part labeld "Pili" probably should be "Fimbriae" if they function to "stick to a surface".
- Activity 29A:
seed plants are discussed in chapter 30.
- Chap 30 p. 592:
"You read in Chapter 29 that nearly all seedless plants are homosporous—they produce one kind of spore,
which usually gives rise to a bisexual gametophyte." But
shows the bryophyte Polytrichum as possessing unisexual gametophytes.
- Figure 30.3B:
the caption discusses a pollen tube, but the diagram does not show it.
- Chapter 31, p. 620:
"Some fungi share their digestive services with animals, helping break down plant material in the guts of cattle and other grazing mammals."
Thiis is not well established.
- Chapter 31, p. 620:
"The fungi break down the leaves into a substance the insects can digest."
This is misleading, as if the ants consume the leaves; the ants consume the fungi.
- Chapter 33 video: Butterfly Emerging
"it forms a cocoon within which it is encased as a pupa."
Monarch butterflies do not form a cocoon around the pupa.
- Chapter 33 video: Bee Pollinating
"the flower provides a supply of sugar and pollen to manufacture honey for the hive."
Pollen is used to make bee bread, not honey.
- Activity 32A:
This activity should be in chapter 33.
Echinodermata are not a good example of bilateral symmetry; adults show five-fold radial symmetry.
Should also have an activity based on molecular rather than morphological phylogeny, since later chapters use the molecular approach.
- Chapter 33 video Clownfish and Anemone:
"The clownfish acts as bait and attracts predatory fish, but when they approach the stinging tentacles of the anemone paralyze the predator and eat it."
How can anemones "eat" predatory fish that are bigger than clownfish?
The clownfish do protect the anemones from predators like butterflyfish and parrotfish though.
- Chap 33 p. 592: "Farmers value earthworms because the animals till the earth, and their castings improve the texture of the soil."
This sentence should be removed; earthworms are not native to glaciated north America and are an introduced European pest.
- Chap 34 p. 673:
"The chordate tail contains skeletal elements and muscles". Invertebrate chordate tails are not skeletal.
- Chap 34 video Manta Ray:
"this manta ray is a bottom dweller that feeds on mollusks and crustaceans, after crushing them with its jaws."
Mantas, unlike stingrays, do not crush mollusks; they are plankton feeders.
- Chap 34 p. 688: "reptiles have scales that contain the protein keratin".
Birds have scales only on extremeties.
- Chap 34 p. 690:
"All turtles have a boxlike shell made of upper and lower shields that are fused to the vertebrae, clavicles (collarbones), and ribs".
These bones are fused to the carapace.
- Figure 34.35:
the marsupial mammal is a Planigale, not a Plantigale.
- Figure 34.36:
the clade containing Marsupials and Eutherians should have a label "Therians".
- Figure 38.3:
"What look like petals are actually sterile flowers." This is true only of some sunflowers like Helianthus annuus.
- Figure 38.7:
- Figure 39.11
caption: "aleurone, the outer layer of the endosperm" -> "aleurone, the outer layer of the seed coat".
- Figure 41.10:
should include Histidine as an essential amino acid for infants.
- Figure 45.9
caption: "TSH–releasing hormone" -> "thyroid-releasing hormone".
- Figure 48.14:
The rightmost membrane regions in part 3 of the diagram should be color-coded red: they have not yet depolarized.
- Figure 49.9:
Hair cells are not shown in this figure, though the captiion describes them.
- Activity 49D:
The motor neuron is not shown in the corrersponding Figure 49.28.
- Figure 53.15:
some letters missing in legend.
- Activity 60C:
Coral reefs should not be classified in the Intertidal Zone; they are not adapted to the "varying salinity and tides ".
- Chap 55 p. 1212: Ecosystem services include "Protection from ultraviolet rays.". How does loss of biodiversity affect UV rays?