Genome sequencing.

  1. Cut the DNA into overlapping fragments with endonucleases.

  2. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage vectors.

  3. Sequence each fragment with dideoxyribonucleotides.

  4. Order the sequences into one overall sequence with computer software.

A haploid set of human chromosomes with 3.2 billion base pairs was sequenced in 2003.