_IMG_21_03ShotgunSequencing_3-U.jpg Genome sequencing.
  1. Cut the DNA into overlapping fragments with _FIG_ch20/restriction.html endonucleases.
  2. Clone the fragments in plasmid or phage _FIG_ch20/cloning.html vectors.
  3. Sequence each fragment with _FIG_ch20/dideoxy.html dideoxyribonucleotides.
  4. Order the sequences into one overall sequence with computer software.
A haploid set of human chromosomes with 3.2 billion base pairs was sequenced in 2003.